Tuesday, March 17, 2015
Gandhi and Indian Democracy
That India opted to be democratic, and remained so, goes to the credit of Pandit Nehru, India's first Prime Minister. Nehru was a democratic man, in rhetoric and in practise, and despite his enormous popularity and stature inside and outside the country, he successfully avoided the entrapment of 'Big Man' syndrome, which afflicted so many of his contemporary leaders of new nations. It was a great exercise of imagination, and logistics (Ramchandra Guha talks about this in his masterly India After Gandhi) to get an enormous, diverse, largely poor and mostly illiterate country on the democratic path. It defied most theories about democracy that political scientists propound - that democracy is mostly a rich country thing - and became the crowing glory for India, and indeed a very convenient excuse for all its failings.
At a time when Indian democracy, along with democracies all around the world, is facing existential dangers from the forces of globalisation and the aftershocks of Great Recession, it is worth looking at India one more time and perhaps go beyond Nehru's commitment, which was indeed whole-hearted and unwavering, and try to understand why democracy became a given, almost a part of the Indian political environment. And, here, I shall argue, we can not ignore Gandhi's influence.
The contribution of Gandhi in the Indian political process, if we can distill it to a single thing, is to open the gates of political participation to those who were previously excluded. The peasants, the poor, the untouchables, the labourers, those who could not read or write and who were too busy and too grateful to be just surviving, were all brought in to the Indian National Movement by Gandhi. He mobilised Indian villages against the cities. Before him, the Indian politics were dominated by the English speaking Middle Classes, conducting their business in a gentlemanly manner but primarily restricting it to the matters of their own concerns, positions and privileges. Gandhi was disruptive, and many resented his influence and blamed him for lawlessness. But, he, undeterred, repeatedly took up causes of poor people, the rights to make salt from sea-water being one, and the rights of labourers and landless peasants, often against the same privileged people and landowning classes who dominated the Indian politics up to that point (one must also remember that the support for Pakistan as a separate country came initially from large Muslim landowners, who feared the socialistic tendencies of the Congress leadership).
And, indeed, he built the Indian National Movement around a non-violent ethos, where mass participation, rather than political strategies of the elite, was the defining factor. It was indeed messy, slow and even indeterminate, but, true to his commitment to right means rather than the right end, Gandhi propagated a value system very different from similar Independence Struggles (or struggles of emancipation) that we would see elsewhere in the world.
This, the mass participation, along with non-violence and the commitment to means, defined the political culture of modern India. Indeed, this is a gross generalisation and I accept that these ideals were only imperfectly followed on. But, this defined a structure where not the elite, but a considerably larger mass of people defined the political process. In fact, as Devesh Kapur argues, Indian Professional Elite, fearful that they would lose their privilege, often voted with their feet after the Independence (which, as an interesting contrast, Pakistani Landed Elite could not do, and had ended up obstructing the democratic process in that country ever since).
In summary, what I am arguing is that there are no surprises that India is poor and democratic. India is democratic because it is poor, and because its political heritage is built around the inclusion of the poor. This is not a country which was led into independence by a small group of brilliant men or revolutionaries (in fact, such elite leadership may be one of the key problems in the communist doctrine) - but rather by an idea that united a broad base of people, and which its elite actually mostly resisted. To see India's democracy as a gift from Nehru, notwithstanding his vision, is casting this unique feat into our usual narrative, an act of dangerous omission. This is the narrative we must now revisit, when we are intent on creating a model of Development driven by the elite, and reappraise the idea of Mahatma against the top-down models such as China's which we have now come to admire.
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How To Live
"Far better it is to dare mighty things, to win glorious triumphs even though checkered by failure, than to rank with those poor spirits who neither enjoy nor suffer much because they live in the grey twilight that knows neither victory nor defeat."
- Theodore Roosevelt
- Theodore Roosevelt
We shall not cease from exploration
And the end of all our exploring
Will be to arrive where we started
And know the place for the first time.
- T S Eliot
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